本·琼森


Ben Jonson本·琼森(1572~1637) 英国诗人,剧作家,评论家 。

本·琼森 - 简介

Ben Jonson本·琼森(1572~1637)

英国诗人,剧作家,评论家 。1572年6月11日生于伦敦。主要诗集有《格言诗》、《森林集》、《灌木集》等曾就学于古代史学者坎姆登,并在其资助下到威斯敏斯特学校读书,获得关于希腊、罗马文学的丰富知识。后又博览群书,成为当时学识最渊博的剧作家之一。

琼森写了18部戏剧,除两部罗马历史悲剧《西亚努斯的覆灭》和《卡塔林的阴谋》之外,大都是社会讽刺喜剧。其剧作遵循古典主义原则,并有强烈的道德倾向。剧中对当时社会恶劣风习的尖锐批评曾使他两次被捕入狱。一次是因与T.纳什合写讽刺时事、现已佚失的《狗岛》,此剧的演出还导致了伦敦剧场的暂时关闭 ; 另一次是因与 C. 马斯顿合写《向东方去》 ,剧中批评了詹姆斯一世的政治 。1598年的《人人高兴》 和1599 年的 《人人扫兴》 是琼森根据气质论( 中世纪所谓4种不同气质产生不同性格的生理学学说 )创作的癖性喜剧。后者因戏拟马斯顿的风格导致了剧场之战,其间有几位戏剧家争以写戏相互攻讦,琼森为此又写了《辛西娅的狂欢》和《冒牌诗人》。

琼森最成功的喜剧有《狐狸》、《炼金术士》和《巴托罗缪市集》。

Benjamin Jonson was born 1571 as the posthumous son of a Protestant minister. His mother then moved him to Westminster, where she married a bricklayer. He attended a free parish school as a boy, and thanks to the sponsorship of the headmaster, was able to attend Westminster Grammar School. Unofortunately, Ben lost his scholarship and was forced to take up bricklaying alongside his stepfather. This occupation did not appeal to him, and he left for military duty in Flanders and did not return to England until 1592. He married in 1594, and joined a touring acting company in 1597. Ben Jonson and another playwright then wrote a play called "Isle of Dogs" which was immediately banned on charges of sedition, and he and his friends found themselves in Fleet Prison. He was released after a few months and managed to restart his acting career. In December of 1598 he fought a duel with another actor named Gabriel Spencer; fortunately for Ben, he won, but unfortunately, he was imprisoned on charges of murder and given the death sentence. He managed to escape the gallows and returned to playwriting. He set out on foot in 1618 to visit Scotland and on his return began lecturing on rhetoric at colleges. He died in 1637 and was buried in Westminster Abbey; his epitaph reads: "Oh Rare Ben Jonson!"
风格详见诗Song to Celia:本诗为英国剧作家、诗人本·琼生(Ben Jonson,1572—1637)所作。他的诗的特点在于明快,文字干净,已有后来古典主义诗歌的特点。To Celia 是一首很有名的抒情诗,赞美的是精神爱(Platonic love),曾谱成音乐。Celia女子名。


Song to Celia

Drink to me only with thine eyes2,

And I will pledge3 with mine;

Or leave a kiss but in the cup4

And I'll not look for wine.

The thirst that from the soul doth5 rise

Doth ask a drink divine6;

But might I of Jove's nectar sup7,

I would not change for thine.

I sent thee8 late9 a rosy wreath,

Not so much honouring10 thee

As giving it a hope that there

It could not wither'd be11;

But thou thereon didst only breathe12

And sent'st it back to me;

Since when13 it grows,and smells,I swear,

Not of itself but thee14!

  

NOTES

  

1.本诗为英国剧作家、诗人本·琼生(Ben Jonson,1572—1637)所作。他的诗的特点在于明快,文字干净,已有后来古典主义诗歌的特点。To Celia 是一首很有名的抒情诗,赞美的是精神爱(Platonic love),曾谱成音乐。Celia女子名。

2.Drink to me only with thine eyes 只需用你的眼睛为我祝酒

thine thy,你的【古】

3.pledge drink a toast,祝酒

4.leave a kiss but in the cup=leave a kiss only in the cup 以吻代酒

5.doth doos,由于音节需要而用的垫词,非加强语气。

6.drink divine divine drink,词序颠倒是为了诗韵的需要。

7.But might I of Jove's nectar sup=if I might sup some of Jove's nectar.

might I= if I might

Jove Jupiter,丘比特(罗马神话中的主神)

8.thee【古】 thoy 的宾格,你、汝

9.late(此处) lately

10.honouring in order to honour

11.As giving it a hope that there it could not wither'd be 这一句的正常语序应是:As giving it a hope that there it could not be wither'd.

there with you,即戴在你头上

wither'd be be wither'd,顺序颠倒为押韵的需要。that there it could not wither'd be是hope的同位语,意为:希望戴在你的头上永不枯萎。

12.But thou thereon didt only breather=But if you merely breathe on it.

didst brcathe 现在虚拟式(下行的 sen'st同。)

13.since when then

14.Not of itself but thee!

此句实际与上文的grows和smells连用。

of itself=by itself

but thee=but of thee=on account of you 整个意思为:花环由于你而生长,由于你而散发出芬芳。

  



本·琼森 - 给西丽雅




你就只用你的眼睛来给我干杯,
我就用我的眼睛来相酬;
或者就留下一个亲吻在杯边上
我就不会向杯里找酒。
从灵魂深处张开起来的渴嘴
着实想喝到美妙的一口;
可是哪怕由我尝天帝的琼浆,
要我换也不甘把你的放手。

我新近给你送上了一束玫魂花,
与其说诚心拿来孝敬你
不如说让它们有希望得到熏陶,
不会得枯搞以至于委地;
可是你只在花上呼吸了一下,
把它们送回到我的手里;
从此它们就开得叫我闻得到
(不是它们自己而是)你。

(卞之琳译)

TAGS: 人物 剧作家 文化人物 英国剧作家
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